The Department of Defense (DoD) is part of the executive branch of the United States government. This Department was created in 1949, by congress, shortly after the happenings of World War II. The department’s secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, was appointed by the president as the 21st Secretary of Defense. The Department of Defense heads the armed forces and helps the president in the coordination of national security.
The National Military establishment was created on September 18, 1947 by way of the National Security Act of 1947. The first secretary only vaguely coordinated the three executive departments. These departments are the Department of the Navy, Department of the Army, and the Department of the Air Force. In 1949, the act was amended, and the name of the establishment changed to the Department of Defense. The original war department was then included into the Department of the Army. The military departments were then put under the Defense Department, after adding a chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, without being considered a cabinet. The ability to overpower the military departments on operational subjects and the stating of the chain of command in the department came in the form of major amendment in 1953, 1958, and 1977.
The Department of Defense is divisible into several subdivisions. These subdivisions are the Office of the Secretary, the military departments, the joint chiefs-of-staff, the Policy Council of the Armed Forces, and the many different agencies. The office of the Secretary is made of many different members, most of whom are civilian. This office is the management of the Secretary of Defense. The senior members of this department are the undersecretary for policy, the deputy secretary, the undersecretary for acquisition, the assistant secretaries and staffs, and the director of defense research and engineering. The assistant secretaries and their staff handle all of the matters that the Secretary of Defense has little time for and must assign to another member of his cabinet. The size and structure of the armed forces is derived by way of reviewing the military and the economic and political areas used in getting our military up-to-par.
The joint chiefs of staff are headed by a chairman, General Richard B. Myers. Under him in command are the chiefs of staff of the United States Army, General Eric K. Shinseki; the naval operations chief, Admiral Clark; the United States Marine Corps head, General James L. Jones; and the chief of the United States Air Force, General John P. Jumper. These four star generals are responsible for logistic and strategic plans for the armed forces. They are considered as the military staff of the Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld. A bill was passed in 1986 reorganizing the Department of Defense’s Joint Chiefs of Staff. It made the chairman the leading military advisor; this also created the need for a vice-chairman, General Peter Pace, placed second in command of the joint-chiefs-of-staff.
The Department of Defense is supported by many underlying agencies to help cover the broad range of subjects included in the department. These agencies include the National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA), Homeland Security Agency (HSA), Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Defense Investigative Agency/Defense Security Service (DSS), National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), Defense Legal Services Agency (DLSA), Defense Security Assistance/Cooperation Agency (DSCA), On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Missile Defense Agency (MDA), and the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). Each of these agencies performs a specific task in aiding the Department of Defense in its advancement towards efficiency.
The NSA protects United States information systems and deciphers foreign intelligence information. Homeland Security, the newest of the agencies, was established to prevent terrorist attacks on the U.S. and reduce the U.S. vulnerability to attacks of terrorism; it is headed by Tom Ridge. Renamed the Defense Special Weapons Agency, the DNA heads all nuclear activities of the U.S.; it performs missions necessary in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The DISA is responsible for controlling and planning all communications and information systems used by the armed forces. Responsible for the production of foreign military intelligence, the DIA provides military intelligence in support of the U.S. military. The DLA provides logistics information to the Military Department, Federal agencies, and any other organization authorized. DARPA is responsible for the research and development for the DoD. DIA, renamed the Defense Security Service, conducts personnel security, provides security products, and offer security education and training to government agencies/agents. NIMA provides accurate Geospatial Intelligence to support our nation security. DSCA builds institutions to ensure American safety and World peace and strengthens America’s alliances with other countries. The On-Site Inspection Agency manages inspections that collect information that help ensure cooperation with treaties constructed to keep world peace. Reducing the threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is the job of the DTRA; DoD resources are combined in the DTRA to manage any WMD threat.
With the help of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, America’s combatant commands, and special agencies, the Department of Defense attempts to make our great country. The DoD helps the United States government accomplish national security and general peace in our nation. Without the Department of Defense, our nation would have no plan for eliminating threats from others to damage our country’s pride and freedom.
Secretary of Defense
Mr. Rumsfeld was a businessman before being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense. Princeton University accepted him as a student and he was educated there under scholarship. After receiving a bachelor’s degree there, he joined the U.S. Navy from 1954 to 1957 as a Naval aviator.
While Eisenhower was president, in 1957, Rumsfeld went to Washington where he served as an administrative assistant to a congressman. Later, he was elected as the Illinois representative in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1962, 1964, 1966, and 1968. He was only thirty years old.
Donald became the Director of the Office of Economics Opportunity and held many other titles from 1969 to 1974, under the Nixon administration. In 1974, he was placed as the Chief of Staff of the White House and later declared the 13th Secretary of Defense, the youngest in history, in 1975.
In the years to follow, Mr. Rumsfeld served as CEO and Chairman of G.D. Searle & Co., an international pharmaceutical company. He then invested in his own private business from 1985 to 1990. From 1990 to 1993, he was Chairman and CEO of General Instrument Corporation, a business dealing in broadband transmission. He was partly accredited with pioneering high definition television as CEO of this company. And until his placement as the 21st Secretary of Defense, he chaired Gilead Sciences, Inc.
Between the years he was CEO of General Instrument Corporation and his second time being named Secretary of Defense, Donald held a few other highly regarded positions. The Ballistic Missile Threat Agency claimed him as Chairman from 1998 until 1999, when he became a member of the U. S. Trade Deficit Review Board; in 2000 he halted his membership. This was due to his assignment as the Chairman of the U. S. Commission to Assess National Security Space and Management and Organization in the year 2000.